2018 Tax Overhaul Changes - Individuals
A dramatic change in tax law and filing, known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, has been approved by Congress and signed into law by the president as of December 22, 2017. The following is a list of changes for individuals that are affected by the new tax bill. All changes will be effective for the 2018 tax year (filed in 2019), unless otherwise noted.
|Rate||Single Filers||Married Filing Jointly|
|10%||Up to $9,525||Up to $19,050|
|12%||$9,526 to $38,700||$19,051 to $77,400|
|22%||38,701 to $82,500||$77,401 to $165,000|
|24%||$82,501 to $157,500||$165,001 to $315,000|
|32%||$157,501 to $200,000||$315,001 to $400,000|
|35%||$200,001 to $500,000||$400,001 to $600,000|
|37%||over $500,000||over $600,000|
The new tax law nearly doubles the standard deduction. It increases the standard deduction to $24,000 for married individuals filing a joint return, $18,000 for head-of-household filers, and $12,000 for all other individuals, indexed for inflation (using chained CPI) for tax years beginning after 2018. All increases are temporary, starting in 2018 but ending after December 31, 2025.
Personal exemptions have been eliminated from 2018 taxes.
Deductions and Credits
Mortgage interest deduction. The new law limits the mortgage interest deduction to interest on $750,000 of acquisition indebtedness ($375,000 in the case of married taxpayers filing separately), in the case of tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, and beginning before January 1, 2026. For acquisition indebtedness incurred before December 15, 2017, the new law allows current homeowners to keep the current limitation of $1 million ($500,000 in the case of married taxpayers filing separately).
The new law also allows taxpayers to continue to include mortgage interest on second homes, but within those lower dollar caps. However, no interest deduction will be allowed for interest on home equity indebtedness.
*NOTE* - Loans that are used for substantial improvements to a home (even if borrowed as a “home equity loan”) are classified by the IRS as “home acquisition debt” and the interest to this debt is deductible. Per IRC sec 163(h)(3)(B)(i)(I)
State and local taxes. The new law limits annual itemized deductions for all nonbusiness state and local taxes, including income taxes and property taxes, to $10,000 ($5,000 for married taxpayer filing a separate return). Sales taxes may be included as an alternative to claiming state and local income taxes.
Miscellaneous itemized deductions. The new law temporarily repeals all miscellaneous itemized deductions that are subject to the two-percent floor under current law.
Medical expenses. The new law temporarily enhances the medical expense deduction. It lowers the threshold for the deduction to 7.5 percent of adjusted gross income (AGI) 2018. For Tax years 2019 and forward the threshold becomes 10 percent of AGI.
Alimony. For any divorce or separation agreement executed after Dec. 31, 2018, the act provides that alimony and separate maintenance payments are not deductible by the payer spouse. It repealed the provisions that provided that those payments were includible in income by the payee spouse.
Moving expenses. The moving expense deduction is repealed through 2025, except for members of the armed forces on active duty who move pursuant to a military order and incident to a permanent change of station.
Moving expense reimbursements. The exclusion from gross income and wages for qualified moving expense reimbursements is repealed through 2025, except in the case of a member of the armed forces on active duty who moves pursuant to a military order.
Educator’s classroom expenses. The final act did not change the allowance of an above-the-line $250 deduction for educators’ expenses incurred for professional development or to purchase classroom materials.
The new law retains the student loan interest deduction. It also modifies section 529 plans and ABLE accounts. It does not overhaul the American Opportunity Tax Credit, as proposed in the original House bill. The new law also does not repeal the exclusion for interest on U.S. savings bonds used for higher education, as proposed in the House bill.
The act modifies Sec. 529 plans to allow them to distribute no more than $10,000 in expenses for tuition incurred during the tax year at an elementary or secondary school. This limitation applies on a per-student basis, rather than on a per-account basis.
The act modified the exclusion of student loan discharges from gross income by including within the exclusion certain discharges on account of death or disability.
The new law temporarily increases the current child tax credit from $1,000 to $2,000 per qualifying child. Up to $1,400 of that amount would be refundable. It also raises the adjusted gross income phase-out thresholds, starting at adjusted gross income of $400,000 for joint filers ($200,000 for all others).
The child tax credit is further modified to provide for a $500 nonrefundable credit for qualifying dependents other than qualifying children.
Federal Estate Tax
The current maximum federal estate tax rate for 2017 is 40 percent with an inflation-adjusted $5 million exclusion ($5.49 million in 2017), which married couples can combine for a $10 million exclusion ($10.98 million in 2017). The new exclusion amounts will now allow married couples to exempt up to $22.4 million for 2018 (after adjustment for inflation) from any estate or gift tax. Heirs, however, will continue to receive a "stepped-up, date of death" basis for inherited assets for purposes of any subsequent sale.
Alternative Minimum Tax
The new law retains the alternative minimum tax (AMT) for individuals with modifications. It temporarily increases (through 2025) the exemption amount to $109,400 for joint filers ($70,300 for others, except trusts and estates). The new law also raises the exemption phase-out levels so that the AMT will apply to an income level of $1 million for joint filers ($500,000 for others). These amounts are all subject to annual inflation adjustment.